Dr. Joel Klenck: Legal Analysis of Historic Preservation Legislation in Samoa and Proposed Faaaloalo Mo Tuaa Ordinance, to resolve a governance conflict within Samoa inhibiting historic preservation.
Dr. Joel Klenck: Archaeology of Luatele Crater: Ritual and Prestige of the Tuimanu'a, Ta'u Island, American Samoa. Co-authors Seiuli V.A. Temese, Epifania Suafo'a Taua'i, Mohammed Sahib: An archaeological survey of Luatele or Judds Crater, an extinct volcano, on Taʻu Island, Manuʻa District, American Samoa.
With the aid of Dr. Joel Klenck, Samoa is among the first in Polynesia with the ability to see 11 metres below the ground using the latest ground penetrating radar technology from GSSI. The objective is to prevent the desecration of burials and human remains during engineering and building projects in Samoa.
Dr. Joel Klenck and PRC, Inc. awarded grant by the U.S. Embassy in Samoa on the use of ground penetrating radar to reveal archaeological strata and features that are inaccessible due to cultural prohibitions in disturbing societal spirits such as aitu and agaga. Also, GPR can readily differentiate between sacred features from building foundations.
The American Samoa Archives had a great time finishing up Archives Month on this year’s Wednesday Night Halloween. Poster Contest judges were Clara Reid of the Friends of the Museum Group, Epi Suafo’a-Tauai of the Am. Samoa Historic Preservation Office, Eliiki Afalava of the Dept. of Adm. Services, and local archaeologist contractor Joel Klenck.
Dr. Joel Klenck: Crisis occurred during the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose II (1,492-1,479 BC) in the 18th Dynasty. Inscription by Pharaoh Hatshepsut (1,479-1,457 BC) in her Underground Temple at Speos Artemidos states that Egypt was “ruined” just before her reign. Mummy of Thutmose II covered with papules from an unknown disease.
Dr. Joel Klenck: "Creating more efficiency to safeguard the heritage of American Samoa while providing solutions to accomplish new construction projects is our main focus," states the Territorial Archaeologist of American Samoa. The American Samoa Historic Preservation Office (ASHPO) is responsible for protecting historic and prehistoric sites among the territory's seven islands.
Dr. Joel Klenck: Nominated World War II structures at Masefau, Afao, and Polo'a in American Samoa to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. Klenck states, "The World War II features at Masefau are similar to the two-tiered domed pillboxes first identified by the late archaeologist Joseph Kennedy. Masefau constructions exhibit a variation and comprise non-tiered octagonal structures."
Dr. Joel Klenck: Discovery of ancient pottery in western Tutuila Island adds archaeological knowledge regarding distribution of ceramic manufacturing in Polynesia. At Fangamalo, archaeologists retrieved ceramic sherds at various stages of firing, adzes, basalt debitage, adze preforms, fire-cracked rocks, clays of different color, volcanic glass, small wafer-thin rocks, cinders, and ash.
Excavations at the Middle Bronze Age site of Tel Haror in Israel uncovered a metal bit in an equid burial dating between 1750 and 1650 B.C.E. It is the oldest extant bit ever found and would have been used to harness a donkey, according to Dr. Joel Klenck, the archaeologist and faunal expert who analyzed the remains.
The earliest known metal equestrian bit has been unearthed by archaeologists in Israel. The bit was discovered in an equid burial site at Tel-Haror. Dr Joel Klenck, a Harvard University-educated archaeologist and president of the Paleontological Research Corporation, led analysis of the remains in the Tel-Haror archaeological site.
At Tel Haror, archaeologists retrieved the earliest metal bit. Dr Joel Klenck, a Harvard University-educated archaeologist and president of the PRC, Inc., who presided over the analysis of the equid remains, states the burial is at the base of a dome-shaped structure next to a Migdal Temple dating to the Middle Bronze IIB Period (1,750-1650 BC).
Dr. Joel Klenck conducted an ethnoarchaeological study of modern Bedouin sacrificial practices in the Levant to provide insight on the deposition of remains at ancient cult sites. These studies are linked with a concept in archaeology called middle range theory where observations of natural processes or human behaviors are used to explain the deposition of archaeological finds.
Dr. Joel Klenck: Another type of sacrifice practiced by Bedouin in the Levant comprises sacrifices to a “weli” or revered person. Klenck states, “Bedouin sacrifice sheep, goats, cattle and occasionally a camel to a weli to redeem vows, incur healing, give thanks or insure fertility. Individuals performing the sacrifices believe the weli will act as a mediator to facilitate their requests.”
Dr. Joel Klenck directed the removal and excavated the skeletal remains of dozens of juvenile dogs, ravens and crows in various states of articulation. The animal bone data was compared to the unique material assemblage at the site that includes serpent figurines, the upraised arm of a statuette, and a pentagram design. Many of the puppies, ravens and crows surrounded a square altar.
Tel Haror was enclosed by an elaborate system of earthen ramparts fronted by a deep ditch (Klenck 2002: 30; Oren et al. 1996: 91). Within the city a sacred precinct was excavated, including a 'migdol temple,' remains of animal sacrifice, and cultic and imported pottery (Klenck 2002; Oren et al. 1996: 91-92). Also found was a well, excavated to 38 feet (Klenck 2002: 34; Oren 1993: 581). The wells of Gerar were a major issue between both Abraham (Gn 21:25) and Isaac (Gn 26:17-22), and the Philistines.
Dr. Joel Klenck’s analysis of animal remains at three archaeological sites in the southern Levant: Avdat, Mampsis, and Nessana (Area K). Also, mentions Klenck’s “Biological” approach that pig production may have been non-viable in areas which received less than 300mm of rainfall per annum unless, as suggested by Klenck (quoted in Toplyn 1994) and Hesse and Wapnish (1996), a sufficient supply of water was guaranteed through investment in special hydraulic systems.
John Shea and Joel Klenck: Trampling has long been recognized as a potential obstacle to lithic microwear analysis, but the magnitude of its effects have not yet been objectively evaluated. A blind test was conducted in which the effects of trampling on the preservation of use-wear traces were measured. The results of this test suggest that even moderate amounts of human trampling may significantly alter the appearance of lithic microwear traces.
We appreciate those who advocate for the protection, preservation, and research of Noah's Ark in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat. Noah's Ark is a site sacred to three world religions, an ancient maritime barge filled with animal cages, with an origin in the Epipaleolithic, and represents the archaeological progenitor site for the Neolithic or farming revolution.